Vocabulary for Group 12 Exercises


Part of Speech




  aequor, -oris  Noun 3rd nt. (flat, level surface); the sea [esp. in poetry]
  os, ossis  Noun 3rd nt. bone Note short vowel and stem vs. ōs,ōris, Group 6
English: ossify
  latus, lateris  Noun 3rd nt. side; flank Distinguish from adj. lātus, -a, -um, Group 9 and particple of ferō, Group 3
  lūmen, -minis  Noun 3rd nt. light; lamp or light source; daylight;
light of the eye; eye; life
  iūs, iūris  Noun 3rd nt. a (legal) right; law;
court of law
 In current use: corpus iūris; ius civile; ius gentium
  iūdicium, -ī  Noun 2nd nt. judgment; trial
  iūdex, -dicis  Noun 3rd m. a judge  sē damnat iudex, innocentem quī
opprimit.  (Publilius Syrus)
  cor, cordis  Noun 3rd nt. heart English: cordial
  scelus, sceleris  Noun 3rd nt. wicked deed, crime;
scoundrel, rascal [colloquial; esp. in comedy]
  vulnus, vulneris  Noun 3rd nt. a wound; injury Note:Listed in some dictionaries under “uolnus” (archaic form)
  decus, decoris  Noun 3rd nt. (that which gives or shows distinction, glory, honor, beauty); an ornament; honor, dignity
  moenia, -ium  Noun 3rd nt. (pl.) (fortified) walls, city walls; fortifications; ramparts, bulwarks
  aes, aeris  Noun 3rd nt. copper; bronze;
(copper) money
aes alienum (= debt)
 fūnus, -eris  Noun 3rd nt. funeral rites; a funeral; burial
  nemus, -oris  Noun 3rd nt. a grove
  pondus, -eris  Noun 3rd nt. weight; a heavy load, burden
  crīmen, -minis  Noun 3rd nt. an accusation, charge; fault, crime, offence (that one is charged with/of)
  vēr, vēris  Noun 3rd nt. spring (season) English: vernal equinox
  rūs, rūrus  Noun 3rd nt. the country, countryside; a farm
(locative: rūrī)in the country
  dōnum, -ī  Noun 2nd nt. a gift, present; votive offering to a deity
  praecipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus  Verb 3rd -io
(+ dat.)
take before(hand); anticipate;
instruct, teach; give rules
  praesum, praeesse, praefuī  Verb Irregular
(+ dat.)
be in charge of, preside over
  praestō, -āre, -stitī, -stitus  Verb 1st (stand over); excel, surpass;
(impersonal) it is preferable, it is better;
show; exhibit; offer
  praebeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus  Verb 2nd hold out, offer; give; provide, supply; show
  praeficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus  Verb 3rd -io
(+ acc. + dat.)
put in charge of, over;
  *iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st swear, take an oath
  iūdicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st judge; decide, determine “Hic dies de nostris controversiis iudicabit.” (Caesar B.G.5.44.3)
  probō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st make or find good; approve, recommend; prove, demonstrate;
test, inspect (and find good)
 Amīcus in necessitāte probātur.
  constō, -āre, -stitī, -stātūrus  Verb 1st stand firm; be composed (of), consist (of); depend on; correspond (to) be certain, be settled
  mandō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st order, command, give a mandate; hand over, entrust, commit Note: often with ut indirect command clause
  sonō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st make a noise, sound;
speak, cry; sing (in celebration)[poetic]; signify, mean
  properō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st hasten, hurry, make haste (see “paulum” below)
  portō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st carry
  volō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum  Verb 1st fly  fāma volat.  (Vergil)
  comparō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st prepare, get ready; set in order Note: there is another comparo < com + par stem
  indicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st point out, indicate, show; betray, inform against
  cōgitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st think, ponder, turn over in the mind; reflect on;
think of, have in mind, intend
  temptō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st
+ infinitive
try, make trial of, attempt, test
  dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st doubt, be uncertain, waver;
(+ infinitive) hesitate
  occupō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st seize, occupy
  vacō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum  Verb 1st
+ ablative (of separation)
be empty, be without;
be free from work; be at leisure
  dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st give as a present, grant; forgive, remit, pardon
  certō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st strive, contend (Orpheus as Eurydice slips back again to the Underworld) bracchiaque intendens prendīque et prendere (to grasp, take hold of) certans (Ovid Met. 10.58)
  līberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st set free, free, liberate
  ignōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st not know, be ignorant of
  cessō, -āre, -āvī, -ātum  Verb 1st cease from, stop; delay; be inactive, be idle
  celebrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st be frequent, visit frequently; fill, throng; celebrate; honor
  vigilō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus  Verb 1st be awake, keep awake, be watchful, watch
  decet, decuit  Verb 2nd Impersonal it is fitting, suitable, seemly, proper
  mūniō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus  Verb 4th fortify, defend (with a wall); protect, secure
  praesēns, (-sentis)  Adjective 3rd
  aequus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd level; equal; fair, reasonable, just; even, calm
  cārus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd dear; precious; costly
  nimius, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd very great; too great; excessive; too much
  paulus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd little, small
  paulum  Adverb a little, somewhat;
a little while
paulumque morati, serius aut citius sedem properamus ad unam (Ovid Met. 10.32
  iūstus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd just, right; lawful; proper
  grātus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd pleasing, acceptable; deserving thanks
thankful, grateful
 In current use: persona non grata
  posterī, -ae, -a  Adjective 1st/2nd coming after, following, later
  postrēmus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd last;
lowest, worst
  citus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd quick, swift, rapid (cf. comparative adv. with paulum, above) Synonym
  fessus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd tired, worn out, exhausted
  aliēnus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd belonging to another;
strange, foreign
(see “aes” above and “quasi” below)
  placidus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd calm, still, quiet, peaceful
  superbus, -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd proud, haughty, arrogant, overbearing;
  dubius, , -a, -um  Adjective 1st/2nd wavering, uncertain, doubtful
  līber, lībera, līberum  Adjective 1st/2nd free  In current use: mare līberum
  iste, ista, istud  Adjective “Pronoun” Declension that (_____ of yours)
  quondam  Adverb once, at some time (past or future) Hīc iacet Arthurus, rex quondam rexque futurus (said to have been on Arthur’s tomb apud Sir Thomas Mallory, Le Morte d’Arthur)
  ferē  Adverb generally, pretty much, for the most part, mostly, about eodem fere tempore (Caesar)
  māne  Adverb in the morning; early (in the morning)
  quōmodo  Adverb how, (in what way) Note: sometimes written as two words.
  scīlicet  Adverb obviously, plainly, evidently, certainly (< scire licet)
Synonyms (Schrickx Lateinische Modalpartikeln)
  quasi  Subordinating Conjunction as if, as though [but not actually] Syracusīs captīs, Marcellus aedificiis omnibus sic pepercit quasi ad ea defendenda non oppugnanda venisset. (Cic. Verr. 2.4.54)
sic vive tamquam cras moriturus, sic stude quasi semper vīcturus (attributed to Erasmus)
Synonyms (tamquam)
 Adverb as if; _____as it were, ____ so to speak (often apologizing for a metaphor) (we parasites) quasi mures (mice) semper edimus alienum cibum. (Plaut. Capt. 1.1.9)

On to Group 13