Characteristics of Cicero’s Latin

3rd declension -i stem endings (esp. adj.): acc. pl. -īs
omnīs (provinciās)
innocentīs praetores

interrogative adjective: quī ____, quae ____, quod ____, etc.
Which _____? What _____?
quae causa . . .
quā vī . . . quā gravitāte, . . . quō dolore . . .

separation of noun and adjective (especially by a preposition, postpostive adverb, genitive or verb(al)

interruption (separation) of parts (especially subject/DO and verb) of clause by subordinate clauses, appositives, long (compounded) phrases, etc. [i.e. be patient and wait – save a spot- for the verb]
(periodic sentence structure)

genitive – noun word order

word order: noun adjective and adjective 
omnia muta atque inanima; (lines 446-447)

substantive use of adjectives [with understood noun]
omnia everything; omnēs everyone
multī; multōs many people; multa many things

structural indicator words (correlatives)
et . . . et
non solum/modo . . . sed etiam
neque . . . neque
aut . . . aut
cum . . . tum both . . . and; not only . . . but also

Contrast paragraph: type of paragraph involving a comparison of two persons/things. It often includes parallel grammatical stuctures.

parallel clauses: clauses with parallel syntax; they may be opposite /adversative or similar in meaning
quod est ingenium tantum,
quae [ ] tanta facultas dicendi aut copia,

gapping: omission of a parallel word from one (often the first, especially for verbs) clause (cf. previous)

Stylistic devices:

tricolon: list of three items (usually with no connector; sometimes with “and” with each item)
qua vi vocis
qua gravitate verborum
quo dolore animi

anaphora: repetition of the same word at the beginning of successive phrases/clauses
(neque . . . neque . . . neque)
nullus gemitus
nulla vox

chiasmus: ABBA word order
perniciosa rei publicae (adj. – dative)
vobisque periculosa (dative – adjective)

emphatic pronouns

paired synonyms
vitiis flagitiisque;
monumenta et indicia

rhetorical questions
Kinds of questions: 

-ne (neutral): yes or no?
nonne: expects a “yes” answer, i.e. asking for confirmation or agreement or suggesting that that should be your answer
(e.g. you are, aren’t you?)
 num: expects/advocates a “no” answer, i.e. seeking confirmation that something is not the case or suggesting that that should be your answer (you aren’t, are you? surely you’re not, are you?)

metrical clausulae (use of certain metrical patterns at the ends of clauses)

. . . esse videātur. (long, short, short, short, long, long)

Prefixes & Suffixes

Prefix Frequency Meaning Suffix Frequency Meaning
con- 41 together;
completely, very, greatly, deeply, forcibly
-iōnis, f.
abstract noun denoting an act: a “_____ing”
ex- 38 out from;
exceedingly, up
-tās, tātis, f. 40 adjective: expresses quality or condition
noun: act, office, condition, or characteristic (Abstract)
ad- 30 to, towards;
in addition
-(t)ium, -ī, nt. 28 Abstract noun: denotes an act, office, condition, or characteristic;
also used of a place or a collective idea.
in- (verb) 30 verbs: into, in, on, upon, against -(t)ia, -ae, f. 27 adjective: abstract quality or condition
noun: abstract act, office, condition, or charactersistic.
also sometimes expresses a collective
English -ce, -ship, -(t)y, -ness, -tude
re- 27 back -tor, tōris, m. 26 agent: one who ______
English -er, -or, -tor
de- 24 down, away, aside, out, off;
utterly, completely
-tus/-sus, -ūs, m. 19 especially from fourth principal parts of verbs
result or act of _______ing
ob- 21 opposite, against;
towards, to, over
-(i)ter 173 adverb
from 3rd declension adjectives (English -ly)
in- (adj.) 21 not, un- -scō, -ere 16 inceptive: to enter a state
“begin to ___, become ___”
per- 10, 71 through;
thoroughly, very, completely
-ōsus, -a, -um 15 “full of”
English -ose, -ous, -ful
dis-/dī 16 apart, in different directions, away;
-tō/-sō, -āre 15 frequentative and intensive
usually 1st conjugation
pro- 10 forth, forward;
instead of, prefer
-tus, -a, -um 12 “provided with”
English -ed, -ate
prae- 8 before, in front;
-ālis, -e
-āris, -e
“pertaining to”
English -al, -il
ab- 6 away (from) -or, ōris, m. 8 signifies activity, condition, or state
especially used of emotions
sub- 5 under;
up (from beneath);
rather, somewhat, a little;
-ius, -a, -um 7, 34 “pertaining to, belonging to”
sē- 5 apart, separately -ārius, -a, -um 8 “pertaining to, belonging to”
inter- 4 between, among -mentum, ī, nt. 7 denotes a means or instrument;
sometimes denotes place
circum- 4 around -tūra, -ae, f. 6 denotes an act
trans- 3 across;
-inus, -a, -um
-ānus, -a, -um
-ēnsis, -e
-(i)cus, -a, -um
6, 64
3, 74
2, 84
3, 54
“pertaining to; from (a place)”
English -an

1. First number is verbs, second is adjectives.
2. Jenks also gives first conjugation denominatives:  Cicero 58. I do not have these broken down by type yet.
3. Not included in Jenks. The figure is mine. I do not yet have a figure for adverbs in –ē.
4. The first number is common adjectives; the second, proper adjectives.

Based on  Paul R. Jenks,  A Manual of Latin Word Formation for Secondary Schools (Boston: D.C. Heath & Co., Publishers, 1911), who used Cat. 1-14; Manil.; Pro Archia.