Chronological Outline

















Roman Empire – – – – – – – – – – – – Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Scientific Revolution
Crisis of
3rd Century
Plague Dark Ages
of Europe
High Middle Ages – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Crusades – – – – – – – – – –
Black Death
Scholastic Age – – – – – – –
Renaissance – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Baroque Art – – –
Baroque Music
AD (1st century) (classical period)

Roman Empire

Julio-Claudians: expansion: Britain, Mauretania (Africa), Judaea, Thrace Nero: fire A.D. 64: 1st persecution of Christians (Peter and Paul) killed A.D. 68 69: Year of 4 emperors (“secret of empire” emperor made outside Rome by army) 69-96: Flavian Dynasty 69-79 Vespasian (equestrian; emperor by army) (destruction of Temple at Jerusalem) 79-81 Titus (eruption of Mt. Vesuvius) 81-96 Domitian (93-96: “Reign of Terror”)

(2nd century) (classical period)

96-192: Antonines “Good Emperors” 96-98: Nerva: senator; adoptive succession 98-117: Trajan (from Spain; greatest expansion; literature and public works) 117-138: Hadrian: consolidation (Hadrian’s Wall in Britain) 138-161: Antoninus Pius (Antonine Wall: Britain) 146- c. 170: work of Ptolemy (Alexandrian astronomer and geographer) c. 160: Gaius Institutiones (legal textbook) 161-180: Marcus Aurelius (philosopher; wars) 165-190: “Antonine plague” (8% of population of Europe) 129 -?199/216: Galen (physician) 180-192: Commodus (son of Marcus Aurelius) (N.B. Commodus was not adopted based upon merit, as his predecessors did) End 2nd century: N Britain, Babylonia, etc. abandoned
(3rd century) 193-235: Severan dynasty 193-211 Septimus Severus 212-217: Caracalla (citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire) 218-222: Elagabalus 222-234: Severus Alexander 235-284: “Crisis of the 3rd century” [Revolt of family of Fars establishes Sassanian dynasty in Persia] Military anarchy Gaul overrun by Franks and Alamanni; Franks to Spain Goths invade Greece, take Byzantium 271-275: Aurelian Walls built around Rome Saxon pirates in Britain Parthians to Syria c. 260: senatorial aristocracy excluded from military commands
4th century Tetrarchy (Later Empire) 284-306: Diocletian (son of freedman from east) 301: taxation in Italy for 1st time Persecution of Christians Division of empire East and West, 4 sections (tetrachies) Succession system: Augustus-Caesar 306-337: Constantine Capital moved to Constantinople; oriental style court; Increase in size and cost of army and administration 312: battle of Milvian Bridge Conversion to Christianity 313: “Edict of Milan” 325: sole Emperor East and West Council of Nicaea (Nicene Creed) Irish monasticism: 350’s eastern monasticism Post 350: Reparatio Saeculi: “Age of Restoration” 361-363: Julian (the Apostate); died as a result of a wound fighting during his Persian campaign 379-395: Theodosius I Suppression of paganism Aelius Donatus, most famous grammarian, teacher of Jerome, author of Ars Minor and Ars Maior

5th century

Vulgate Bible (completed c. 405) by Jerome

Barbarian Invasions

Angles, Saxons, and Jutes raid and settle in English (Germanic basis of English; Celts withdraw to Wales and Cornwall) St. Patrick (died c. 460) 410: Sack of Rome by Alaric (and Visigoths); Britain abandoned Barbarian kingdoms established in Gaul and Spain Vandals established in Africa 438: publication of Theodosian Code (law; under Theodosius II and Valentinian III) 451: Attila invades Italy, defeated 455: Vandals sack Rome 476: Romulus Augustulus: last “Roman” emperor “End of Western Roman Empire Byzantine Empire continues in east Dominance of Ostrogoths in West (Odoacer: king 476-491; had served under Romans)

6th century

527-65: Justinian emperor in East (Theodora, co-empress) Legal texts: Codex, Digest, Institutes Plague (541-544)(about one quarter of population of Europe) c. 532: Dionysius, mathematician, astronomer, and theological scholar in trying to establish rules for calculating Easter, creates Christian calendar and starts practice of dating A.D. (anno Domino) 536: Year without summer (climate change) 590’s Pope Gregory (missionary activity) Missionaries from Ireland and Rome to England [Transfer of center of learning to the Isles]

7th century

c. 602-636: Isidore, bishop of Seville (Spain). Encyclopedia Etymologiae or Origines

8th century

[“Dark Ages” of Europe]

9th century

800-814 Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus) “Holy Roman Empire” Carolingian Renaissance Recognition of difference between Latin and proto-Romance languages Recruitment of scholars from British Isles back to continent (Alcuin, etc.)
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10th century

11th century

High Middle Ages” (c. 1050-c. 1300)

agrarian > urbanized Commercial revival “Age of Faith”: height of papal power; cathedrals built; New orders: Cistercians, Dominicans, Franciscans First universities Crusades and expansion of territory: Most of (Muslim) Spain reconquered New principalities (eastern Mediterranean) Northeast: Baltic coast Southern Italy and Sicily (Byzantine and Islamic) 1001: Bologna Law School founded 1054: Great Schism of Latin and Greek Churches 1066: Battle of Hastings-William the Conqueror of Normandy defeats King Harold (Saxons) Norman French rule of England for next 200 years 1095-1099: First Crusade-regains Holy Land (from Islam) 1098: Cistercian monastic order founded

12th century

Late 12th-13th centuries: Scholastic Age

Translations from Greek and Arabic into Latin Influence of Aristotle (13th century) triumph of philosophy Education reforms: law, medicine, theology, philosophy; Decline in literature Universities replace episcopal schools Assimilation of new material (beginning of 13th century): Gothic script; manuscript illumination (more important than text itself) 1167: Nucleus of University of Oxford 1187: Jerusalem lost

13th century

c. 1200: University of Paris founded 1202: Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci) Liber Abaci 1209: Franciscan Order founded Cambridge University founded 1215: Magna Carta Dominican Order founded 1229: Genghis Khan takes Peking 1230: First gunpowder used in China 1244: Jerusalem taken by Muslims 1250: Inca culture in Cuzco area 1265/6-73: Aquinas [1224-1274] Summa Theologiae 1275-92: Marco Polo in China 1276: Paper manufactured in Italy

14th century

Renaissance (13th in Italy) 14th-16th Century

Humanism Printing press Commercial book trade (breaks ecclesiastical monopoly) Private libraries “All” (printed) knowledge available to scholars Latin: remains common language of scholarship; rise of vernacular literature; translations from Latin into vernacular 1304-74: Petrarch 1309-77: Avignonese Papacy (Babylonian captivity) [decline in authority of Catholic church; access of members of papal court to libraries of France; easier contact with north and its legacy] 1315: Famine 1320: Dante Divine Comedy Poetry and philosophy do not conflict Return of papacy to poverty of Peter and restoration of worldly dominion to monarchs 1328-1384: John Wycliffe (first English translation of the Bible) 1337-1453: Anglo-French Hundred Year’s War 1346-50: Black Death Plague (reaches Europe) 1364-65: Universities of Cracow and Vienna founded 1378-1417: Great Papal Schism (Rome and Avignon) 1380-1459: Poggio Bracciolini (search for classical manuscripts; Humanistic script)

15th century

1449-1515: Aldus Manutius: Aldine Press (Venice): printed editions of Greek texts Lorenzo Valla; Angelo Politian (Poliziano) 1453 Fall of Constantinople and Eastern Roman Empire to the Turks 1456: Vulgate Bible printed (by Gutenberg) in Mainz 1466/69-1536: Erasmus of Rotterdam, Dutch humanist 1468-1540: Guillaume Budé (French classical scholar) 1470’s editions of Latin texts 1481: Spanish Inquisition 1483-1546: Martin Luther, German religious reformer 1492: Columbus sails to new world 1491-1540: St. Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish founder of Society of Jesus

16th century

16th-17th Century: “Scientific Revolution”

Rise of physician Reformation Classical scholarship in the Netherlands 17th century: textual criticism (Richard Bentley) Origins of paleography (study of old manuscripts) 1503: Leonardo da Vinci- Mona Lisa 1508-12: Michelangelo- Sistine Chapel 1516 (-1535): Erasmus edition of Greek-Latin New Testament with Annotationes 1517: Luther- 95 Theses 1530-1596: Jean Bodin, French political philosopher 1534: Jesuit Order founded (Ignatius of Loyola) 1543: Copernicus (De Revolutionibus) Baroque Period of art: late 16th-17th century 1561-1626: Sir Francis Bacon, English philosopher 1564-1616: William Shakespeare, English dramatic poet 1564-1642: Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer 1569: Mercator’s map of the world 1571-1630: Johannes Kepler, German astronomer 1578-1657: William Harvey, English physician 1582: Gregorian Calendar (Pope Gregory) revised that only centuries that are divisible by 400 are a leap year. 1588-1679: Thomas Hobbes, English political philosopher 1596-1650: Rene Descartes, French philosopher

17th Century

Baroque Period of music: 17th – early 18th century 1606-1669: Rembrandt van Rijn, Dutch painter 1628: De Motu Cordis (circulation of blood) by Harvey 1632-1723: Antony van Leeuwenhock, Dutch natural historian (microscope) 1633: Andrew White Relatio Itineris in Marilandiam 1637: Discours de la methode by Descartes (Latin trans. 1644) 1641-42: Meditationes de Prima Philosophia (1st– 2nd ed.) by Descartes 1642-1727: Isaac Newton, English physicist 1644: Dissertatio de Methodo (Latin translation) by Descartes 1646-1716: Gottfired van Leibniz, German mathematician and philosopher 1664-65: Great Plague in England 1672: Isaac Newton formulates law of gravitation 1682: Louis XIV moves court and government to Versailles 1687: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Newton 1685-1750: J. S. Bach

18th Century

1707-1778: Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist 1704: Opticks, on light by Newton 1705: Edmund Halley predicts the return of “his” comet 1727: plant physiology founded by Hales 1735: Systema Naturae (1st ed.) by Linnaeus