Summary of Latin Noun and Adjective Endings

Vocabulary forms
Nouns: nominative sing., genitive sing., gender
Adjectives: nominative singular masc., fem. (/masc.- fem), neuter;
3rd decl. 1 ending nom., (gen.)

Case “Normal” Nominative (Blue) “Gregarious” Genitive (Orange) “Darling/Daddy” Dative (Purple) “Adventuresome” Accusative (Red) “Bashful” Ablative (Green) “Vocal” Vocative (Yellow)
See also Uses of each case (link at case name)
Subject; Complement (Predicate Adjective/Predicate Nominative) Possession; (noun) (“of/for”) noun Indirect Object; Reference (“for”) Direct Object; Object of preposition; motion “to” a place; “for” time (duration) Object of preposition;
“by” [means “of”]/”with (a thing)”; Location (“in”); Separation “from”
Direct Address

Singular Endings

Nominative Genitive (- ending = base Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative
-a stem/ 1st decl. -a -ae -ae -am -a
-o stem/ 2nd decl. masc.: -us
nt.: -um
-um -r = nom.
(-us nom): -e
(-ius nom): -ī
nt.: -um
Pronouns m/f. (-s)
nt. (-d)
(meī, tuī, suī)

(mihi, tibi, sibi)
-am, -um,
nt. = nom.
-ō, -ā, -ō
3rd decl;
cons. stem and *-i stem
masc.: -r
fem: -s, -ō, -x
nt.: -us, -oris/-eris;
-men, -minis
(3 ending adj.) -er, -is, -e
(2 ending) -is, -e
(1 endings) -s/-x
-is m./f.: -em
nt.: (= nom.)
cons. stem: -e
nt. *-i stem/adj: -ī
(=nom. or stem)
-u stem/ 4th -us -ūs -uī -um -us
-e stem/ 5th -ēs -eī
-em -ēs

Plural Endings

Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative Vocative
-a stem
1st declension
-ae -ārum -īs -ās -īs -ae
-o stem;
2nd decl.
masc: -ī
nt: -a
-ōrum -īs masc: ōs
nt: -a
Pronouns -ī, -ae, -a
(nōs, vōs)
(nostrum, nostrī)
(nōbīs, vōbīs)
(nōbīs, vōbīs)
3rd decl:
cons. and -i stem
m/f: -ēs,
nt: -a
(-i stem/ adj: -ia)
-i stem/adj.: -ium
-ibus m/f: -ēs
(-i stem:/ -īs),
nt. -a
(-i stem/ adj: -ia)
-ibus (= nom.)
-u stem;
4th decl.
-ūs -uum -ibus -ūs -ibus -ūs
-e stem;
5th decl.
ēs -ērum -ēbus -ēs -ēbus -ēs
3rd decl. Gender *-i stem
Nominatives in -s, -ō, -x: usually feminine
[many nom. in –s have a -t (or -d) base]
(ars, art-is)
Nominatives in -r: usually masculine
Neuter: -men, (min-)
-us (-or- or -er-)
nominative= genitive (ignis, ignis)
monosyllabic nominative + base ending
in two consonants (nox, noct-is)
[-e abl s; but -ium gen. pl.]
-i stem endings in singular and plural:
mare, animal (neuter)
3rd decl. adjectives