Building Vocabulary Through Word Formation:
Prefix e-/ex-

Prefix: ē- / ex-

I. Read through the following sentence and think about the meaning of the maroon colored word. If you want to check (after you have read it yourself) your translation of the rest of the context, hold the cursor over the (translation) after the clause/sentence. After you have read the maroon word in context and think you know what it means, you can check by holding the cursor over it. Remember, you will learn better and more (especially long term) if you practice recall and process your own thoughts before you check.

(From Vergil (Aen. 3.148-150). Aeneas is telling about his dream.)
effigiēs sacrae divum Phrygiīque Penatēs quōs mēcum ā Troiā mediīsque ignibus urbis extuleram, . . . (translation)

II. Read through the following definitions of English derivatives of Latin words and fill in the blanks with the appropriate translations of the Latin. Practicing analyzing derivatives in this way will help you practice translating Latin compound verbs and will also help you use your English in anaylzing and translating unknown Latin compound verbs. Again, after you have come up with your answer, you may check by holding the cursor over the maroon words. Think about the order that you translate the parts in. (link?)

1. When you export goods, you (portās) _________ them (ex-) _____ of one country into another.

2. If you exclude someone, you (claudis) ________ the person (ex-) ______ of a group.

3. If you extract something, you (trahis) _______ it (ex-) _________.

4. When you elect someone, you (legis) ______ the person (e-) _____ of a list of possible candidates.

How would you define the following based on the Latin (similar to the ones above)?


III. Look at the words below, and check the four that share a common prefix. Then choose the correct meaning of the prefix.

excurrō _____ A) away
ēdūcō ______ B) formerly
effundō _____ C) out
errō ______ D) under
egeō ______ Check answer

IV. How many of the following (using common verb stems) can you give the meaning of? (Note: the meaning of "out" sometimes has the idea of out "in public" or the positive idea of "in praise")
exeō: (Group 13)
Caesar . . . militesque ex oppidō exire iussit (Caes. BG 2.33)
ēgredior (Group 10)
ēdūcō: (Group 13)
gladium [ē vaginā] ēducere conantī (Caes. BG V.44.8)
efferō: (Group 13)
et clipium [shield] efferrī iussit (Verg. Aen. 5.359)
effundō(Group 13)
ēligō(Group 13)
(eloquar an sileam? Verg. Aen. 3.39)
ēdīcō (English derivatives? What added idea can this have, especially when used of public officials?)
ēnuntiō (English derivatives?)
ut nullā ratione ea res ēnuntiarī . . . posset (Caes.BG 5.58)
ē(i)iciō (with vowel weakening from what main verb?)
(English derivatives?)
ēveniō (English derivatives? How do they relate?)
ēmoveō (English derivatives?)
ērumpō (English derivative? Think of the 4th principal part)
excidō (with vowel weakening from what main verb?)
excīdō (with vowel weakening from what main verb?)
expōnō (English derivatives?)
exprimō (English derivatives?)
*existimō (ex- aestimō) (Group 7)
extendō (English derivatives?)
extollō (cf. English; which added idea can this have sometimes?)
exspectō: (Group 13)
Galli, quod ampliores copiās . . . exspectabant (Caes. BG V.50.1)

Basic Recap:

What is the basic meaning?

When (before what kind of consonants) is the form ē- used and when ex-?

Note: The only form that assimilates with ex- is before a verb stem beginning with "f-." The compound form has "eff-" (e.g. efferō).

Note: When the prefix occurs before a verb stem beginning with "s," the compound form may be spelled with or without the "s." When looking them up in a dictionary, if you can’t find it one place (e.g. exspectō), try the other (expectō).

Going the next level:

If you do something "out to the end," this can indicate "thoroughly" or "fully." It can also add a sense of intensity, "earnestly, eagerly" or "with force, violently." What then might the following mean?

ēdiscō: (of the youths in training under the Druids) Magnum numerum versuum ēdiscere dicuntur. (Caes. BG VI.14.4)
exigō (from what verb?): Iamque opus exēgī (Ov. Met. 15.871)
*ēripiō (Group 13)(Note that this can also fit the next kind)
timore poenae exterritī (Caes. BG VII.43)

Similarly, if you do something "out" to the end or goal, what would this imply about the success of it? What then might the difference in meaning between the members of these pairs be?

faciō and *efficiō (Group 13)
si id efficere non posset, (Caes. BG V.50)
rapiō and *ēripiō (Group 13)(Note the change in perspective from the previous group)
fugiō and effugiō
vadō and ēvadō (Group 13)(English derivatives?)
(Turnus to his opponent, Lycus: "nostrāsne ēvadere, demens,/ spērastī tē posse manūs?” Vergil Aen. 9.560)
lābor and ēlābor
solvō and exsolvō
vincō and ēvincō
rogō and ērogō
ōrō and exōrō
audiō and exaudiō
("Domine, exaudī vocem meam." Biblia Vulgata Psalm. 129:2 = modern 130:2)

*excipiō (Group 13)

Note: Sometimes, especially on adjectives, "out" can end up resulting in the opposite meaning "not, without, ____-less." What might the following mean?

*ēgregius (ē- grex) (Group 13)
exsecror (ex-sacer)
exsaeviō (to the end, to a stop)
exanimō: quō percussō et exanimatō (of an enemy soldier hit [percusso < percutior] and knocked down) (Caes. BG V.44.5)