Glossary

This Glossary contains words not found or not common in classical Latin (or with different meanings) as well as some words frequently needed by students. See also: Characteristics of Post-Classical Latin, (Grammar:) Correlatives, and Pronouns. The abbreviations in parentheses after entries are for authors/works in which the word is used.

Spelling

: ae/e/oe

y/i
ch/h
ci/ti
u/v
-nq- = -mq-

ABCDEFGHI/JKLMNOPQRSTU/VZ

A

a/ab + person: “by”; (“from”)

+ place/thing/person: “(away) from”
accidit/accidunt

literally fall to, happen ( < ad + cado) ( + dative), i.e. inflections or aspects (Don)
adeo

to such an extent [ut: that], so, thus
alii

some [people]; others
aliquando
sometimes
aliquī,aliquae, aliquod

any (adj.); some
aliquid

something; anything (Harv.)
aliquis
someone; anyone (Harv.)
autem

moreover
auxilium

(feudal aid owed by a vassal to a lord, including such things as military and court service. It was also used of monetary subsidies. The conditions had been variously defined; this limited them to these three. A fourth occasion, for crusades, was added later) (MC)

B

ballivus
bailiff, offficial (officials under the vicecomites who carried out routine administrative tasks) (MC)
baro, baronis
baron; free man
binarium

the digit 2 (Fib.)
bizantius

bezant(Byzantine gold coin) (Fib)

C

caeterum

= ceterum:

moreoever, furthermore; but (Er.)
see also: de cetero
cantaria, -ōrum:
hundredweights; cantar [The amount varied from place to place. the Pisan cantar was equal to one hundred rotuli (rolls)]. (Fib)
catallum, -i
chattels (items of tangible, movable, or immovable propterty except real estate and things connected with real property); the principal (of a debt) (MC)
-ce
suffix added to pronouns (Linn)
cernō, -ere, crevi, cretum:
discern, see; distinguish; decide (Newt.)
ceterum
moreoever, furthermore; but (Er.)
see also: de cetero
codex (or caudex), codicis, m.:

book (in book form, not scroll)
comes, comitis:
earl (in England; = count in Europe); (MC)
con-

= com-
consistit

+ ablative. (consist of, be formed of)
constat -(ex)

it consists (of)
contingit
it happens, occurs (impersonal) (Fib., Harv.)
correptus, -a, -um

(< corripio) short (of a vowel) (Don)

D

da

(do, dare) imperative (Don)
de cetero

(MC) henceforth
decenus, –a, –um

tens (Fib.)
desino, desinere, desi(v)i
cease, stop (Harv.)
dictum, (-us, -a) est

is said; is derived from, comes from (Is.)
distringo, -ere
compel (MC)
drachma, -ae, f.
one dram = one-eighth of an ounce (Apothecary’s weight); also a coin (Harv.)

E

eo . . . quo
the ____er . . . the ____er; the more _____ . . . the more _____; (by this much . . . by so much]; (to) there . . . (to) where
eo quod

from the reason that; because (+ subjunctive) [i.e. eo marks a following “quod” to signify cause “because, in that” instead of relative pronoun or “that” (+ indicative). Note that “because” is the marked meaning and not the default or usual.]
errantes, -ium

(those wandering)i.e. the planets (Cop.)
esto

let it be; suppose (imperative of sum) (Harv.)
et

also (adverbial, note word order) (Is., Er.)
ex[s]-

in compound verbs
ex[s]istō

I am, exist (Is.)
ex[s]tō

be (still) in existence; be; exist (Des.)

F

feodo
fief (land held of a lord by a vassal in return for services and aid) (MC)
fere (ferè)
almost, nearly (Desc.)
figura
digit ("number" whose value can change depending on what place value column it is in vs. number) (Fib.)
form; the kind of word (simple or compound) (Donatus)
fore

(alternate form of futurum esse) future infinitive of sum. (Harv.)
forestarius, –ī
forester (officials in charge of forest areas) (MC)
forsan

perhaps; probably (cf. forsitan, there is a chance that) (Harv.)
fors, fortis
chance
forte

by chance (adv.) (Des., Fib.)

G

genus

voice (of a verb) (Don)
gradus, -us
step; place (e.g. ones’, tens’) (Fib.)
gratiā
for the sake of (preposition + preceding genitive) (Fib.)

H

habeō
(passive or + 2 acc.) I regard, consider (someone as/to be something) (Des.)
hīc
here, in this place (Er.)

Hieronymus, -ī

Jerome (Er.)
homilia
sermon

I/J

iis
alternate form of eīs (seeis, ea, id)
inanio, inanire

empty out; evacuate; make empty (tr.) (Harv.)
incipit
(it) begins (This is the standard formula in copying manuscripts to mark the beginning of a new book, chapter, or section. The first few words of a work are called the “incipit”) (Fib.)
insimul
together (Fib.)
intelligo
= intellego (Desc.; Newton)
interpres, -etis, c.

translator (Er.)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum
(used as general pronoun) (Fib.)
ita tamen quod
provided that; in such a way that; on condition that (MC)
item

likewise, similarly (Er.; Fib.)
iter, itineris
journey (White)
iuxta
in consequence of; in proportion to; according to (
justiciarius, -ī

justiciar (MC)

K

karata

(or caratta), -ōrum: carats (unit of weight) (Fib)

L

lanio, laniōnis, m.
butcher (Harv.)
(-)latus

< (-)ferō

(perfect passive) (Linn.)
legō, legere:
read; pick, choose (Er.; Harv.)
libra, librae

pound (Apothecary’s Weight: 1 lb.=12 ounces);also currency (= 20 solidi) (English) (Fib; Harv.; MC)
licet
(+ subjunctive) although
[+ infinitive + dative: it is permitted] (Er.)
litus, litoris (n.) shore (Newt.)

luminaris, -e

(as substantive): luminary [body[, i.e. of the sun and moon (Newt.)
M

maior, maius

(comparative of magnus) bigger, greater, larger, more (Newt.)
mare, maris

(nt. -i stem: abl. sing. mari; nom/acc pl. maria, gen. pl. marium) sea (Newt.)
massa, massae, f.

(Harv.)
maxime
(superlative adverb) especially; most (Newt.; Linn.)
meridianum, –ī:

meridian (i.e. line of longitude, either directly overhead or opposite); the south (Newt.)
method/methodus
(gen. method; acc. methodum; abl. methodo) f. (< Greek) method ((Des.; Linn.)
minister, -trī, m.

servant (MC)
minor, minus

(comparative of parvus): less, smaller (Newt.)
mores (pl.) < mos, moris (sing.) (Linn.)
N

namque

for; but, on the other hand (Fib)

ne

(+ subjunctive): also used for negative commands: “don’t ____” (colloquial and Greek New Testament translation influence) (Er.)
ne. . . quidem
not even _____ (Des.)
necessario
necessarily (Harv.; Desc.)
nempe

to be sure; forsooth, certainly, truly; namely (Cop.; Desc.)
nimirum (< ne-mirum)
undoubtedly; to be sure (Fib.)
non modo … uerumetiam
not only . . . but also (Er.)
nonnulli:

(not none) = some (Er.)
non solum … uerumetiam
not only . . . but also (Er.)
nq– = -mq-
(e.g. nunquam = numquam; quanquam; tanquam)

O

opus, operis,
(n.) work (Linn. )
opus est

there is need (for someone: dat.) of (something: ablative) (Er.)

P

palam

plainly, clearly, evidently
(+ est: it is well known, public; clear, plain)(Harv.)
par, paris

(nt. pl.: paria) equal; as substantive: a peer (Fib.;MC)
pateō, -ēre
be open, lie open; be clear, be evident (Des.; Harv., Newt.)
pene

p[a]ene almost (Cop.; Harvey)
p[o]en[a]e (punishment)(Luther)
per

through; by (MC) (Fib.)
placitum, -i
a (legal) plea (MC)
potius

rather (Er.)
pr[a]egno,
-are be pregnant (Fib.)
pr[a]epositus, -ī
steward (local governor who helped carry out and protect the king’s command and rights at the estate level(MC)[Mantello]
productus

long (of a vowel) (Don)
proprius, -a, -um

one’s own; his/her own; characteristic (Desc.;Linn.)
puta (imperative of puto)
suppose, for example; for instance, namely

Q

quaesi[v]erit
(< quaero) seek (Fib.) (MC?)
qu[a]e

(Fib.)

qualiter

how; in what way, manner (Fib)
quàm
than (note ‘accent’) (Cop.; Desc.)
quam

+ superlative as________as possible
quamuis

although (Des.)
quanquam

= quamquam (Er.)
quasi
as it were; as if (Isid.)
quatenus
to the extent that, as much as; to the degree that (Newt.)
que
= quae
quemadmodum

(Er.)
qui, quae, quod

interrogative adjective: what________/which________? (Don)
quicumque, quaecunque

whoever; any (Harv.; Newt.)
quilibet, quaelibet, quodlibet
whoever/whatever ___ you wish (Fib.)
quilibet numerus
whatever number you want; any number (Fib.)
quis
(after si, nisi, ne, or num) anyone, someone (Fib.)
quispiam
someone; anyone (Harv.)
quisquam, quidquam

anyone; anything (after negatives) (Harv.)
quiuīs,quaeuīs, quoduīs
whoever; whatever [you wish] (Harv.)
quo
(abl. of relative pronoun + subjunctive: relative clause of purpose) by which; (so that) (Bede; Alberti)
correlative: the more
quod
which; this (Is.); that (+ indirect statement)(Fib., MC)
[eo] quod

because (Is.)
[id] quod

that which; what (Des., Er., Harv.)
quod si
but if
quum

= cum (Harvey; Er.)

R

relevium
relief (fee for entry into an inheritance; a fee paid to the lord by the heir of a deceased vassal for the right of assuming the lapsed tenancy) (MC)
rēvērā
(or as two words) really, in truth (Des.)
Rotuli, -orum:
roll; (unit of weight) [the Pisan roll was 12 ounces] (Fib)

S

scholium, -ī
a remark or observation subjoined but not essential to a demonstration [Merriam-Webster on-line dictionary]; a note accompanying a mathematical proof (Newt)
scilicet

namely (MC) (Fib.)
secundum (prep. + acc.)
according to (quod: which), in accordance with (Fib., Harv., Is., Linn., MC)
seisio, -ire (also saisio)
seize; appropriate; disseise (MC)
semis, semissis, m.

(or indeclinable) one-half (Harv.)
senescallus

seneschal (a steward with mainly ceremonial functions or a household officer having care of the provisions) (MC)
sescuncia, sescunciae, f.
one and a half ounces (Harv.)
sicut

just as; (Er.)
sidus, sideris,
nt.: star (pl.) stars; constellation (Is.: Cop., Newt.)
siquidem
if indeed, if only; since indeed, since; seeing that, inasmuch as; in that, for; assuming that (Eras.)
further
sol(i)dus, -i:

coin (solid gold)(= 12 denarii) (Fib)

species, -iei, f.
appearance; species (Linn.)
summus, -a, -um

highest; top of
summa, –ae
(noun) the sum, the product (written at the top

of the column of figures) (Fib., Newt.)

suppedito, -are
supply, provide (Harv.)
systole, systoles

contraction; systole (Harv.)

T

tam . . . quam:

both . . . and; (so . . . as) (MC, Harv.; Newt.)
tantum
(adverb): only (Des., Fib., Harv.)
tantum. . . quantum

as much . . . as (Newt.)
Templi
the order of Knight Templars (founded c. 1115 for the protection of pilgrims to the Holy Land.) (MC)

tarenus, -i:
tarenus (unit of weight); also a gold coin in southern Italy (Fib)

teneo
hold; keep by holding; hold by tenancy; (+ de) be enfeoffed (of)
tercio

= tertio (Fib.)
ternarium

(cf. binarium) (Fib.)

U/V

vel/uel
or (subordinating conjunction) (Fib., MC; Harv.);
even (adverb) (Harv.)
vel. . . vel
either … or (Newt.)
uero/vero

but; but really; (believe me) (Is.; Fib., Cop., Harv.; Desc.)
versus

towards, (turned) to (prep. + acc < participle of vertō) (Fib., Desc.)
uerto/verto, -ere, verti, versus
turn; translate (Er.)
verum (si)
but (if)
vicecomes, -comitis,

m. sheriff (king’s appointed representatives in the shire or county with mainly judicial duties) (see Mantello) (MC)
uidelicet/videlicet:

namely; that is; in other words [cf. English abbreviation “viz.” with the ‘z” from a manuscript contraction of “et”] (Fib.; Harv.; Newt.)
vīs/uis

(gen. vis, dat. vi, acc. vim, abl. vi; pl. nom./acc: vires, gen.virium, dat./abl. viribus) (3rd declension "super" i-stem)

force (Newt.; MC; Harv.)

uncia, unciae, f.

ounce (Apothecary’s ounce = one-twelfth of a pound) (Harv.)
unitas, -atis, f.
digit (usually the digit 1) (Fib.)
unusquisque

each single; each and every; each (Harv.; Newt.)
uox, uocis, f.
voice; word
usque

up to (usually with ad or in + acc.) (Fib.)
ut / uti

as (+ list/example(s) without verb or + indicative) (Fib., MC, Harv.; Des., Newt., Linn.) (+ word or phrase vs. clause; often used to introduce examples) (Don)
uterque

each one (Is.; Fib.)

Z

zephyrum/zephirum (nt.)
zero (Fib)
&

= et “and” (manuscript ligature)

(sign called "ampersand" derived from “and per se and” from its position at the end of the alphabet by itself after ‘z’)

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