Outline of Roman History

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753 (7 for 7 hills, 7 kings) Founding of Rome
5 give the first digit of the year of the change to republic (509 BC)
3 (empire started de facto 31 BC, de iure 27 BC)
Order: Mr. E (monarchy, republic, empire)

Early Periodc. 1000 BC: Immigration of Italic (branch of Indo-European) speaking people with Iron Age culture to Italy
Legend:  Aeneas (son of Anchises and Venus) escaped from Troy to Italy
                             (delay in Carthage: Queen Dido)
                             fought Rutulians and Etruscans
                             married Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus (Latins):
                                       merger of two cultures
                             founded city of Lavinium
          Alba Longa founded by Aeneas’ son, Ascanius/Iulus
                   kings of Alba Longa
          Romulus and Remus, offspring of Mars and Rhea Silvia (Vestal Virgin)
                   founding of Rome 753 BC
  7 Kings  (Etruscan influence)
                   Romulus (deified =  Quirinus)
                             “rape” of Sabine women
                   Numa Pompilius (Sabine)
                   Tullus Hostilius (wars)
                             Curiatii and Horatii
                   Ancus Marcius
                   Tarquinius Priscus (Etruscan)
                   Servius Tullius
                   Tarquinius Superbus (“The Proud”) (Etruscan)
                             expelled 510/509 BC
 RepublicEstablished (510/509)
450: Law of the Twelve Tables

334-264:  colonization and expansion; conquest of Italy

                     312 Appius Claudius censor: Via Appia; Aqua Appia
          3rd century:
                   Greek influence
                    Beginning of Latin literature
                    Punic Wars (Carthage: Phoenicians of North Africa)
  2nd century: domination of East including Greece (186 BC)
                   Hellenic Greek influence
                    146 BC: Mediterranean Sea = “mare nostrum” (“our sea”)
     1st century: civil wars, Social war

Golden Age” of Latin literature (c. 80 BC – AD 14)
                     44 BC: assassination of Julius Caesar
43 BC: death of Cicero

Principate  (Empire)
(for more see Post-Classical Chronological Outline
31/27 BC-AD 14: Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Augustus
31 BC: Defeats Marc Antony (and Cleopatra) at Actium
27 BC: official powers
AD 14-68: Julio-Claudians
14-37: Tiberius
37-41: Gaius Caligula
41-54: Claudius
54-68: Nero  (fire of Rome)
69:  Year of 4 emperors (“secret of empire” emperor made outside Rome by army)
69-96: Flavian Dynasty
69-79: Vespasian (sack of Jerusalem)
79-81: Titus (eruption of Mt. Vesuvius) (Colosseum)
81-96: Domitian (93-96 “Reign of Terror”)96-192
Antonines “Good Emperors”Classical period of Roman law
96-98: Nerva
98-117: Trajan (maximum expansion of Roman empire)
117-138: Hadrian: consolidation (Hadrian’s Wall)
138-161: Antoninus Pius
161-180: Marcus Aurelius
180-192: Commodus
193-235: Severan Dynasty
193-211: Septimius Severus
212-217: Caracalla (citizenship to all free inhabitants of the empire)
218-222: Elagabalus
223-234: Severus Alexander

3rd century:

Crisis”  (barbarian invasions; political instability)
284-306: Diocletian: Division of Empire (Tetrarchy)
306-337: Constantine:
adoption of Christianity
capital to Constantinople(renamed)

5th century:

barbarian movements;
410: Rome sacked by Alaric (Visigoths)
Anglo-Saxons in Britain
476: end of rule of Romulus Augustulus
last “Roman” emperor
[so-called “Fall of Western Roman Empire”] Eastern Roman Empire continues
[Ostrogothic rulers]
Carolingian Empire
AD 800-814: Charlemagne (Carolus Magnus: Charles the Great):
ruler of Holy Roman Empire
Carolingian Renaissance
 Eastern Roman Empire
AD 1453:  Fall of Constantinople and Eastern Roman Empire (to Turks)